1. Question : Criminal penalties as an administrative sanction result only from proceedings in the regular courts, not directly from an administrative order.
2. Question : Enforcement is the last step for an agency to achieve its policy goals.
3. Question : No options other than formal adjudication exist for administrative enforcement.
4. Question : An agency’s goal through enforcement and threats of enforcement is to gain voluntary compliance.
5. Question : Agencies whose programs involve financial decisions can use economic sanctions to achieve policy aims.
6. Question : Compliance occurs when actions are consistent with legal commands.
7. Question : A central question regarding the scope of judicial review is how much deference courts should give to an agency’s interpretation of its own statutory authority.
8. Question : Administrative fines may only be implemented through court order so are a rarely used administrative sanction.
9. Question : The scope of judicial review includes the premise that courts, like legislatures, make laws and public policy.
10. Question : Judges often seek out controversies to rule upon which have yet been formally entered as a lawsuit.
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